The enslaved Africans adapted better to the new environment and thus became the number one choice of unpaid labour; they also provided medical services and skilled labour, including carpentry, for their masters.
However, according to a Smithsonian Institution article, the West African slave population in the Caribbean also had a high mortality rate, which was compensated by regular imports of very high numbers of new slaves from West and Central Africa.
The Arawak introduced agriculture to Antigua and Barbuda.
Among other crops, they cultivated the now noted Antiguan "Black" pineapple.
It is one of the Leeward Islands in the Caribbean region and the main island of the country of Antigua and Barbuda.
They paddled to the island by canoe (piragua) from present-day Venezuela, pushed out by the Carib, another indigenous people.
For example, a popular Antiguan dish, dukuna (), is a cooked paste made of cornmeal and water. As a result, the Arawak and Carib populated much of the South American and the Caribbean islands.
Their descendants live throughout South America, particularly Brazil, Venezuela and Colombia. Sir Christopher Codrington, an Englishman, established the first permanent European settlement.
He came from Barbados, bringing the latest sugar technology with him.
Betty's Hope, Antigua's first full-scale sugar plantation, was so successful that other planters turned from tobacco to sugar.